The family Syrphidae (Diptera) is traditionally divided into three subfamilies. The aim of this study was to address the monophyly of the tribes within the subfamily Syrphinae (virtually all with predaceous habits), as well as the phylogenetic placement of particular genera using molecular characters. Sequence data from the mitochondrial protein-coding gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and the nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA gene of 98 Syrphinae taxa were analyzed using optimization alignment to explore phylogenetic relationships among included taxa. Volucella pellucens was used as outgroup, and representatives of the tribe Pipizini (Eristalinae), with similar larval feeding mode, were also included. Congruence of our results with current tribal classification of Syrphinae is discussed. Our results include the tribe Toxomerini resolved as monophyletic but placed in a clade with genera Ocyptamus and Eosalpingogaster. Some genera traditionally placed into Syrphini were resolved outside of this tribe, as the sister groups to other tribes or genera. The tribe Bacchini was resolved into several different clades. We recovered Paragini as a monophyletic group, and sister group of the genus Allobaccha. The present results highlight the need of a reclassification of Syrphinae.