New leaf- and litter-dwelling Pholcus
We describe eight new species of the genus Pholcus, and document their microhabitats. Four species are assigned to the previously described Pholcus ethagala group: P. tanahrata sp. nov., P. uludong sp. nov, and P. bukittimah sp. nov. from the Malay Peninsula, and P. barisan sp. nov. from Sumatra. These species are all litter-dwellers that build domed sheet webs on the undersides of large dead leaves on the ground. The other four species are assigned to newly created species groups: the P. tambunan group with two species from northern Borneo: P. tambunan sp. nov. and P. bario sp. nov.; and the P. domingo group with two species from the Philippines, Mindanao: P. domingo sp. nov. and P. matutum sp. nov. These latter four species are leaf-dwellers that build barely visible silk platforms tightly attached to the undersides of live leaves. The main rationale for this paper is to provide part of the taxonomic and natural history background for upcoming phylogenetic and evolutionary (microhabitat shifts) analyses.