The dwarfing of hippopotami on islands
Islands provide startling examples of evolution and have inspired both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. A notable example is hippopotami (or hippos). Many hippo fossils have been found on the Mediterranean islands, Madagascar, and Java. Body size of these insular hippos decreased after colonisation of the island, so that they were dwarfed compared to their mainland ancestors. The Cypriot dwarfed hippo (Phanourios minor) is the smallest dwarfed hippo ever to have roamed the earth. Through histologic analyses of the long bones it is demonstrated that the growth trajectory of the Cypriot dwarfed hippo was unlike that of any other mammal.