Revision of the subfamily Spiromiminae
Recent inventory work on Madagascar has led to the discovery of several undescribed species of the millipede order Spirobolida. All three known species belonging to the endemic Malagasy subfamily Spiromiminae Brölemann 1914 are redescribed here, and 10 new species are added. The genus Pygodon de Saussure & Zehntner, 1901 is synonymized under Spiromimus de Saussure & Zehntner, 1901, rendering the Spiromiminae monotypic and including Spiromimus voeltzkowi de Saussure & Zehntner, 1901, S. univirgatus de Saussure & Zehntner, 1901, S. dorsovittatum (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1901) n. comb., S. triaureus n. sp., S. electricus n. sp., S. litoralis n. sp., S. scapularis n. sp., S. albipes n. sp., S. laticoxalis n. sp., S. simplicicoxalis n. sp., S. grallator n. sp., S. namoroka n. sp., and S. simplex n. sp. Antennae, gnathochilarium, mandible and female copulatory organs were compared using scanning electron microscopy. In order to find apomorphies of the Spiromiminae and to construct a species-level phylogeny of Spiromimus, members of the other described spirobolidan genera from Madagascar, Aphistogoniulus Silvestri, 1897 and Madabolus Wesener & Enghoff, 2008, as well as the Indian genus Xenobolus Carl, 1918 and the SE Asian genus Aulacobolus Pocock, 1903, were added as outgroups to the data matrix. The phylogenetic analysis resulted in an (albeit weakly supported) strict consensus tree with the following structure: Aulacobolus, Madabolus, Aphistogoniulus, (Xenobolus (Spiromimus simplicicoxalis (S. laticoxalis (S. voeltzkowi ((S. litoralis (S. electricus (S. dorsovittatus, S. triaureus))) (S. scapularis (S. univirgatus, S. albipes))))))). Distribution and habitat (in dry forest vs. rainforest) were mapped on the tree.