Pholcus and its relatives
The genus Pholcus Walckenaer and nine other pholcid genera are characterized by a simplified type of comb-hair on the fourth tarsi. This supposedly monophyletic group (Pholcus group of genera) is herein revised, with special emphasis on Pholcus, the largest genus in the family Pholcidae. The group is largely restricted to the Old World, with a few exceptions of presumably relict and newly introduced species in the New World. As revised here, the group includes 320 species, most of which (254) belong to the genus Pholcus. Eighty three previously described species are redescribed; some are illustrated for the first time. A first cladistic analysis based on morphological data is presented for the group. The new genus Sihala is proposed for Pholcus ceylonicus from Sri Lanka and a newly described Indian species. Further new genera are indicated by the cladistic analysis, but a conservative approach is adopted due to weak support and poor diagnosability of the respective clades. 112 species are newly described: in Calapnita: C. deelemanae, C. saluang, C. semengoh; in Leptopholcus: L. budongo, L. debakkeri, L. dschang, L. griswoldi, L. gurnahi, L. huongson, L. kandy, L. lokobe, L. ngazidja, L. obo, L. talatakely; in Micromerys: Mm. baiteta, Mm. papua; in Panjange: Pa. bako, Pa. iban, Pa. madang; in Pehrforsskalia: Pe. bilene, Pe. shambaa; in Pholcus: Ph. agadir, Ph. amani, Ph. andulau, Ph. arayat, Ph. arkit, Ph. attuleh, Ph. baka, Ph. bakweri, Ph. bamboutos, Ph. bangfai, Ph. batepa, Ph. bikilai, Ph. bohorok, Ph. bolikhamsai, Ph. camba, Ph. cheaha, Ph. chiangdao, Ph. choctaw, Ph. cibodas, Ph. dade, Ph. dixie, Ph. doucki, Ph. erawan, Ph. ethagala, Ph. gombak, Ph. halabala, Ph. hoyo, Ph. hurau, Ph. jaegeri, Ph. jusahi, Ph. kamkaly, Ph. karawari, Ph. kerinci, Ph. khene, Ph. kihansi, Ph. kinabalu, Ph. kindia, Ph. kingi, Ph. koasati, Ph. kohi, Ph. kribi, Ph. kwamgumi, Ph. kyondo, Ph. laksao, Ph. lanieri, Ph. ledang, Ph. lilangai, Ph. lualaba, Ph. luki, Ph. lupanga, Ph. maturata, Ph. mazumbai, Ph. mbuti, Ph. mecheria, Ph. mentawir, Ph. minang, Ph. moca, Ph. nodong, Ph. namkhan, Ph. namou, Ph. negara, Ph. nkoetye, Ph. okgye, Ph. otomi, Ph. pagbilao, Ph. pakse, Ph. phui, Ph. pyu, Ph. reevesi, Ph. ruteng, Ph. sabah, Ph. satun, Ph. schwendingeri, Ph. sepaku, Ph. simbok, Ph. singalang, Ph. soukous, Ph. steineri, Ph. sudhami, Ph. taarab, Ph. tahai, Ph. taita, Ph. thakek, Ph. twa, Ph. varirata, Ph. wahehe, Ph. woongil, Ph. yeongwol, Ph. youngae; in Sihala: S. alagarkoil; in Uthina: U. ratchaburi. The following taxa are newly synonymized: Spermophora longiventris Simon, 1893 and Pholcus tagoman Huber, 2001 with Uthina luzonica Simon, 1893; Pholcus claviger Simon, 1877 with Physocyclus globosus (Taczanowski, 1874); Pholcus lucifugus Simon & Fage, 1922 with Pholcus lamperti Strand, 1907; Pholcus dentifrons Thorell, 1898 with Pholcus quinquenotatus Thorell, 1878; Pholcus donensis Ponomarev, 2005 with Pholcus opilionoides (Schrank, 1781); Pholcus xinjiangensis Hu & Wu, 1989 with Pholcus ponticus Thorell, 1875; Pholcus vachoni Dimitrov & Ribera, 2005 with Pholcus fuerteventurensis Wunderlich, 1992; Pholcus lambertoni Millot, 1946 with Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775); Pholcus okinawaensis Irie, 2002 with Pholcus fragillimus Strand, 1907. Pholcus zichyi Kulczyński, 1901 is re-established and removed from its synonymy with Pholcus crypticolens. Seven species are transferred to other genera; to Leptopholcus: Pholcus podophthalmus Simon, 1893; to Pholcus: Uthina atrigularis Simon, 1901, Spermophora faveauxi Lawrence, 1967, Leptopholcus debilis (Thorell, 1899); to Panjange: Spermophora dubia Kulczyński, 1911; to Sihala n. gen.: Pholcus ceylonicus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869; to Smeringopus: Pholcus excavatus Simon, 1877.