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How the sandfish lizard prevents sand particles from entering its lungs

AutorInnen: 
Stadler, A. T., Vihar, B., Günther, M., Huemer, M., Riedl, M., Shamiyeh, S., Mayrhofer, B., Böhme, W., Baumgartner, W.
Erscheinungsjahr: 
2016
Vollständiger Titel: 
Adaptation to life in aeolian sand: how the sandfish lizard, Scincus scincus, prevents sand particles from entering its lungs
Autor/-innen des ZFMK: 
Publiziert in: 
Journal of Experimental Biology
Publikationstyp: 
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
DOI Name: 
10.1242/jeb.138107
Keywords: 
Scincus scincus, Respiration, Calculation, Particle flow
Bibliographische Angaben: 
Stadler, A. T., Vihar, B., Günther, M., Huemer, M., Riedl, M., Shamiyeh, S., Mayrhofer, B., Böhme, W., Baumgartner, W. (2016): Adaptation to life in aeolian sand: how the sandfish lizard, Scincus scincus, prevents sand particles from entering its lungs. – Journal of Experimental Biology (2016) 219: 3597-3604; doi:10.1242/jeb.138107
Abstract: 

The sandfish lizard, Scincus scincus (Squamata: Scincidae), spends nearly its whole life in aeolian sand and only comes to the surface for foraging, defecating and mating. It is not yet understood how the animal can respire without sand particles entering its respiratory organs when buried under thick layers of sand. In this work, we integrated biological studies, computational calculations and physical experiments to understand this phenomenon. We present a 3D model of the upper respiratory system based on a detailed histological analysis. A 3D-printed version of this model was used in combination with characteristic ventilation patterns for computational calculations and fluid mechanics experiments. By calculating the velocity field, we identified a sharp decrease in velocity in the anterior part of the nasal cavity where mucus and cilia are present. The experiments with the
3D-printed model validate the calculations: particles, if present, were found only in the same area as suggested by the calculations. We postulate that the sandfish has an aerodynamic filtering system; more specifically, that the characteristic morphology of the respiratory channel coupled with specific ventilation patterns prevent particles from entering the lungs.

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