Giant pill-millipedes (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida) in the littoral forest fragments of Southern Madagascar.
An inventory of giant pill-millipede species was conducted during March and April of 2003 in the three remaining littoral forest fragments around Tolagnaro (Fort Dauphin). Three small blocks at Petriky, Mandena, and Sainte Luce represent the last vestiges of littoral forest on sandy ground in southern Madagascar. Three species of the Genus Zoosphaerium, and two of the enigmatic Genus Sphaeromimus were found in these areas. Only one species was found in more than one of the forest patches, and only one was found more than 10 kilometers outside the littoral forest ecosystem. The known distributions of three species are restricted to one forest fragment. Although the littoral forest holds a smaller number of giant pill-millipedes than other Malagasy ecosystems, its faunal composition is very unique and most species are endemic to this ecosystem. No millipedes were found in Eucalyptus plantations.