First troglobitic Glomeridesmus from Brazil
Glomeridesmus spelaeus n. sp., the first Glomeridesmida described from Brazil and only the second known troglobiontof the order, is described from iron caves of the Amazonian. This description is the first in the order Glomeridesmida since 1975, and also the first utilizing modern techniques like SEM. Numerous taxonomic characters, some employed in recent studies of other millipedes, are described, illustrated, and compared for the first time in the Glomeridesmida, building a foundation for future phylogenetic studies, as well as future descriptions of new members of this basal, enigmatic, and still little-known millipede order. The first photographs of a living Glomeridesmida, as well as anecdotal live observations, are presented. The description of G. spelaeus is also important from a conservation point of view, since the cave system it inhabits is under anthropogenic pressure due to planned mining activities.